After the fourth jhāna is well established, meditators may choose to deepen their concentration and refine their skills by establishing jhānas using other meditation subjects. Or they can explore formless and immaterial states based on the perception of infinite space, the perception of infinite consciousness, the perception of nothingness/emptiness, and an ultra-subtle perception that is called the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.
Different meditation objects have different effects on the mind, so meditators who are adept at concentration may benefit from additional samādhi training to enrich their experience of the wholesome states of jhāna and strengthen mastery of the mind.
When a student is satisfied with their concentration, they may shift the focus to the discernment of matter, mind, and conditionality, and then engage in insight meditation through the contemplation of the impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and not-self characteristics of experiential phenomena.
Students who undertake the meditative training with Shaila Catherine can gradually explore a systematic and comprehensive training in both samādhi and vipassanā through repeated annual 10-day retreats, supported by online programs or individual guidance throughout the year.